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Mead Lover's Digest #90 Thu 04 March 1993


Forum for Discussion of Mead Brewing and Consuming
John Dilley, Digest Coordinator

Contents:

Re: Mead Lover's Digest #89 (March 03, 1993) (Justin Seiferth)
Great Wyeast Info (Sean Myers)


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Date: Wed, 3 Mar 93 8:36:38 MST
From: seiferth@cobra.cs.unm.edu (Justin Seiferth)
Subject: Re: Mead Lover's Digest #89 (March 03, 1993)

>
> Does it really take 6 months to fully ferment ?

Yes. I made some 2 Oct, it is now very tasty. You can drink it
earlier but it gets much better with time.
> How long does active fermentation (in primary fermenter bucket)
I dont' leave mine in a empty bucket except during the time when I
am cleaning the carboy.
> take prior to transfer into a carboy ?
I put my mead directly into a carboy with a blowoff tube. I figure
when something takes this long to make I don't want to risk
contamination

> How long does it stay in the carboy ?

I clean out the carboy (to remove fruit, trub, etc) after a month
or two then leave it in for a month or two after that.

> What is the ideal fermentation temperature ?
> Should I use bottled water or tap (mine is relatively hard) ?

I boil all the water I use for mead- to avoid contamination

> How long to boil the mix ? Boil at all ?

I boil for around 30minutes. I have had no problems with
contamination. I add the fruit in the last five minutes. It comes
out tasting very fresh.
> What addatives can I add for different flavors ?
>
My favorite is fresh raspberries, ginger and lemon zest.

> Please forgive my lack of knowledge on the subject.
> Thank you.
>
> Pete Burke
>
> pburke@pica.army.mil (201) 724-3613
>
>
> ——————————
>
> Date: Tue, 2 Mar 93 12:43:09 EST
>
From: "Peter J. Burke" (FSAC-PMD) <pburke@PICA.ARMY.MIL>
>
> Greetings,
>
> I plan on making a batch of Mead in the near future
> and am looking for some good recipe type information.
> I only have the limited amount of information contained
> in "The New
> Joy …" and found it rather limiting.
>
> I also have some questions:
>
> Does it really take 6 months to fully ferment ?
> How long does active fermentation (in primary fermenter bucket)
> take prior to transfer into a carboy ?
> How long does it stay in the carboy ?
> What is the ideal fermentation temperature ?
> Should I use bottled water or tap (mine is relatively hard) ?
> How long to boil the mix ? Boil at all ?
> What addatives can I add for different flavors ?
>
> Please forgive my lack of knowledge on the subject.
> Thank you.
>
> Pete Burke
>
> pburke@pica.army.mil (201) 724-3613
>
>
> ——————————
>
>
> End of Mead Lover's Digest
> ************************
>



Date: Wed, 3 Mar 1993 09:01:00 -0800
From: smmyers@ossem.srv.PacBell.COM (Sean Myers)
Subject: Great Wyeast Info

As promised, here is that yeast info. Apparently, it came from a Wyeast info
letter. Thanks Dan & Dave.

There's been a few questions lately about yeast and characteristics associated
with them. Here is a retype of some information I received from Wyeast
relative to their yeast. This information was obtained a while ago and
supposedly this was to be updated and expanded. If anyone has the latest
update I would appreciate a copy of it from you since Wyeast wasn't too
tickled that I contacted them directly. Sorry if there are any typos.

YEAST CHARACTERISTICS

Some yeast strains are more active and vigorous than others. Lager strains
in particular do not show as much activity on the surface as many of the
Ale strains. We provide an adequate quantity of yeast to complete fermen-
tation with varying amounts of lag time depending on strain, freshness,
handling, and temperature. If you find it too slow, make a starter as
recommended on the package. In any event, a closed fermenter with an
airlock is recommended.

TEMPERATURE

The slow onset of visible signs of fermentation can be improved by starting
fermentation at 75 deg. F (24 deg. C) until activity is evident, then
moving to your desired fermentation temperature. A few degrees does make
a significant difference without adversely affecting flavor.

The normal temperature for Ale yeast range from 60-75 deg. F (16-24 deg. C)
A few strains ferment well down to 55 deg. F (13 deg. C). 68 deg. F (20
deg. C) is a good average. Lager strains normally ferment from 32-75 deg.
F (0-24 deg. C). 50-55 deg. F (10-12 deg. C) is customary for primary
fermentation. A slow steady reduction to 32 deg. F (0 deg. C) during
secondary fermentation typically works well.

The fermentation rate is directly related to temperature. The lower the
temperature, the slower fermentation commences. Fluctuations in tempera-
ture such as cooling and warming from night to day can adversely affect
yeast performance.

ATTENUATION

Apparent attenuation of yeast normally ranges from 67-77%. The attenuation
is determined by the composition of the wort or juice and the yeast strain
used. Each yeast strain ferments different sugars to varying degrees,
resulting in higher or lower final gravities. This will affect the resid-
ual sweetness and body.

FLOCCULATION

All brewing yeast flocculate. The degree and type of flocculation varies
for different yeast. Some strains clump into very lary flocculate. Some
floc very little into a more granular consistency. Most yeast strains
clump and flocculate to a moderate degree.

pH RANGES

Typical pH range for yeast fermentations begins at about 5.1 and optimally
4.8. During the course of fermentation the pH reduces to typically 3.9-
4.1 and as low as 3.1 in some wines.

ALCOHOL TOLERANCES

The alcohol tolerance for most brewing yeast is as least to 8%. Barley
wines to 12% can be produced by most Ale strains. Pitching rates need to
be increased proportionally to higher gravities. Alternately, Champagne
and Wine yeast can be used for high gravities sometimes reaching alcohols
to 18%.

YEAST PROFILES

Ales (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

1007. Our original Ale Yeast of German origin. Ferments dry and crisp
leaving a complex yet mild flavor. Produces an extremely rocky head and
ferments well down to 55 deg. F (12 deg. C). Flocculation is high and
apparent attenuation is 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature:
62 deg. F (17 deg. C).

1028. British #2 (London Ale previously British Ale). Rich minerally
profile, bold woody slight diacetyl production. Medium flocculation.
Apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 68 deg.
F (20 deg. C).

1056. American Ale Yeast. Ferments dry, finishes soft, smooth and
clean, and is very well balanced. Flocculation is low to medium.
Apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 68 deg.
F (20 deg. C).

1084. First considered just British, but now more specifically Irish.
Slight residual diacetyl is great for stouts. It is clean smooth, soft
and full bodied. Medium flocculation and apparent attenuation of
71-75%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 68 deg. F (20 deg. C).

1098. British Ale Yeast from Whitbread. Ferments dry and crisp,
slightly tart and well balanced. Ferments well down to 55 deg. F (12
deg. C). Medium flocculation, apparent attenuation 73-75%. Optimum
fermentation temperature: 70 deg. F (21 deg. C).

1338. European yeast from Wissenschaftliche in Munich. A full bodied
complex strain finishes very malty. Produces a dense rocky head during
fermentation. High flocculation, apparent attenuation 67-71%. Optimum
fermentation temperature: 70 deg. F (21 deg. C).

Lager (Saccharomyces uvarum)

2007. Our original Lager Yeast Strain. Specific for pilsner style
beers. Known as many things, we call it Pilsen. Ferments dry, crisp,
clean and light. Medium flocculation. Apparent attenuation from
71-75%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 52 deg. F (11 deg. C).

2035. American Lager Yeast. Unlike American pilsner styles. It is
bold, complex and woody. Produces slight diacetyl. Medium floccu-
lation, apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature:
50 deg. F (10 deg. C).

2042. Danish Yeast Strain. Rich, yet crisp and dry. Soft, light
profile which accentuates hop characteristics. Flocculation is low,
apparent attenuation is 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 48
deg. F (9 deg. C).

2124. Bohemian Lager Yeast. The traditional sazz yeast from Czechoslo-
vakia. Ferments clean and malty, rich residual maltiness in high
gravity pilsners, medium flocculation, apperent attenuation 69-73%.
Optimum fermentation temperature: 48 deg. F (9 deg. C).

2206. Bavarian Yeast Strain used by many German breweries. Rich flavor,
full bodied, malty and clean. Medium flocculation, apparent attenuation
73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 48 deg. F (9 deg. C).

2308. Munich Yeast from Wissenschaftliche in Munich #308. One of the
first pure yeast available to American homebrewers. Sometimes unstable,
but smooth soft well rounded and full bodied. Medium flocculation,
apparent attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 50 deg.
F (10 deg. C).

Saccharomyces delbrueckii, S. cerevisac

3056. Bavarian Weissen. A 50/50 blend of S. cerevisiae and
Delbrueckii to produce a south German style wheat beer with cloying
sweetness when the beer is fresh. Medium flocculation, apparent
attenuation 73-77%. Optimum fermentation temperature: 56 deg. F (13
deg. C).

Wine Yeast

3021. Prise de mousse, Institute Pasteur champagne yeast race bayanus.
Crisp and dry, ideal for sparkling and still red, white and fruit wines.
Also can be used for Barley wines. Optimum fermentation temperature:
58 deg. F (14 deg. C).

3028. French wine yeast ideally suited for red and white wines which
mature rapidly. Enhances the fruity characteristics of most wines.
Optimum fermentation temperature: 72 deg. F (22 deg. C).

Malo-lactic Bacteria

Leuconostoc oenos

4007. Malo-lactic culture blend isolated from western Oregon wineries.
Includes strains Ey2d and Er1a. Excellent for high acid wines and low pH.
Softens wines by converting harsh malic acid to milder lactic acid. Can be
added to juice any time after the onset of yeast fermentation when sulfur
dioxide is less than 15 ppm.



 

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+ Sean M. Myers (smmyers@ossem.srv.PacBell.COM) | +
= Systems Analyst | 17 weeks and =
+ Operator Services | counting… +
= Software Engineering and Maintenance | =
+ Pacific Bell (SRV complex) CA. USA | +




End of Mead Lover's Digest


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