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Mead Lover's Digest #91 Fri 05 March 1993


Forum for Discussion of Mead Brewing and Consuming
John Dilley, Digest Coordinator

Contents:

Specific Gravity Charts (John Gorman)
More Mead Info (YUM!) (STBLEZA)


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Date: Thu, 4 Mar 93 15:05:18 EST
From: john@rsi.com (John Gorman)
Subject: Specific Gravity Charts


Subject: Specific Gravity Charts

Honey comes in 5 gallon tubs with a net weight of 60 pounds.
Maple syrup comes in 5 gallon tubs with a net weight of 55 pounds.
Water weighs 8.3 pounds per gallon:

Specific gravity of Honey: 60 / (8.3 * 5) = 1.445
Specific gravity of Maple: 55 / (8.3 * 5) = 1.325

Using Dick Dunn's formula:

Gs = starting gravity

V = total volume

Gh = SG of honey

h = volume of honey

then

h = V * (Gs – 1) / (Gh – 1) (Amount of honey to hit Gs.)

and

Gs = (h * (Gh – 1)) + 1 / V (Gs for amount of honey.)

also

Alc%vol = (Gs – 1) * 130.8 (According to Fred Eckhardt.)

The numbers to the left of each chart are Specific Gravity (SG) in
hundredths. The numbers along the top of each chart are SG in
thousandths. The chart figures correspond to the sum of the of the
row and column SG numbers.

The first and second charts show the volumes of honey needed to hit
various specific gravities for 5 gallon and 1 gallon batches of mead.
The volumes are given in Quart,Cups (q,c) and Cup,Ounces (c,o)
respectively.

The second page shows the same information for maple syrup.

The third page shows the potential percent alcohol by volume for
various specific gravities according to The Essentials of Beer
Style
by Fred Eckhardt. To find the actual alcohol content for
a mead, subtract the final SG from the starting SG and look up
the net alcohol gained.

John Gorman john@rsi.com
Relational Semantics, Inc. 617-926-0979
17 Mount Auburn Street Watertown MA 02172 USA


Quarts and Cups of Honey in 5 Gallons

  1. G. 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009
    – —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —–
    1.000 0q,0c 0q,0c 0q,0c 0q,1c 0q,1c 0q,1c 0q,1c 0q,1c 0q,1c 0q,2c
    1.010 0q,2c 0q,2c 0q,2c 0q,2c 0q,3c 0q,3c 0q,3c 0q,3c 0q,3c 0q,3c
    1.020 1q,0c 1q,0c 1q,0c 1q,0c 1q,0c 1q,0c 1q,1c 1q,1c 1q,1c 1q,1c
    1.030 1q,1c 1q,2c 1q,2c 1q,2c 1q,2c 1q,2c 1q,2c 1q,3c 1q,3c 1q,3c
    1.040 1q,3c 1q,3c 2q,0c 2q,0c 2q,0c 2q,0c 2q,0c 2q,0c 2q,1c 2q,1c
    1.050 2q,1c 2q,1c 2q,1c 2q,2c 2q,2c 2q,2c 2q,2c 2q,2c 2q,2c 2q,3c
    1.060 2q,3c 2q,3c 2q,3c 2q,3c 2q,3c 3q,0c 3q,0c 3q,0c 3q,0c 3q,0c
    1.070 3q,1c 3q,1c 3q,1c 3q,1c 3q,1c 3q,1c 3q,2c 3q,2c 3q,2c 3q,2c
    1.080 3q,2c 3q,3c 3q,3c 3q,3c 3q,3c 3q,3c 3q,3c 4q,0c 4q,0c 4q,0c
    1.090 4q,0c 4q,0c 4q,1c 4q,1c 4q,1c 4q,1c 4q,1c 4q,1c 4q,2c 4q,2c
    1.100 4q,2c 4q,2c 4q,2c 4q,2c 4q,3c 4q,3c 4q,3c 4q,3c 4q,3c 5q,0c
    1.110 5q,0c 5q,0c 5q,0c 5q,0c 5q,0c 5q,1c 5q,1c 5q,1c 5q,1c 5q,1c
    1.120 5q,2c 5q,2c 5q,2c 5q,2c 5q,2c 5q,2c 5q,3c 5q,3c 5q,3c 5q,3c
    1.130 5q,3c 6q,0c 6q,0c 6q,0c 6q,0c 6q,0c 6q,0c 6q,1c 6q,1c 6q,1c
    1.140 6q,1c 6q,1c 6q,1c 6q,2c 6q,2c 6q,2c 6q,2c 6q,2c 6q,3c 6q,3c
    1.150 6q,3c 6q,3c 6q,3c 6q,3c 7q,0c 7q,0c 7q,0c 7q,0c 7q,0c 7q,1c

Cups and Ounces of Honey in 1 Gallon

  1. G. 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009
    – —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —–
    1.000 0c,0o 0c,0o 0c,1o 0c,1o 0c,1o 0c,1o 0c,2o 0c,2o 0c,2o 0c,3o
    1.010 0c,3o 0c,3o 0c,3o 0c,4o 0c,4o 0c,4o 0c,5o 0c,5o 0c,5o 0c,5o
    1.020 0c,6o 0c,6o 0c,6o 0c,7o 0c,7o 0c,7o 0c,7o 1c,0o 1c,0o 1c,0o
    1.030 1c,1o 1c,1o 1c,1o 1c,1o 1c,2o 1c,2o 1c,2o 1c,3o 1c,3o 1c,3o
    1.040 1c,3o 1c,4o 1c,4o 1c,4o 1c,5o 1c,5o 1c,5o 1c,5o 1c,6o 1c,6o
    1.050 1c,6o 1c,7o 1c,7o 1c,7o 2c,0o 2c,0o 2c,0o 2c,0o 2c,1o 2c,1o
    1.060 2c,1o 2c,2o 2c,2o 2c,2o 2c,2o 2c,3o 2c,3o 2c,3o 2c,4o 2c,4o
    1.070 2c,4o 2c,4o 2c,5o 2c,5o 2c,5o 2c,6o 2c,6o 2c,6o 2c,6o 2c,7o
    1.080 2c,7o 2c,7o 3c,0o 3c,0o 3c,0o 3c,0o 3c,1o 3c,1o 3c,1o 3c,2o
    1.090 3c,2o 3c,2o 3c,2o 3c,3o 3c,3o 3c,3o 3c,4o 3c,4o 3c,4o 3c,4o
    1.100 3c,5o 3c,5o 3c,5o 3c,6o 3c,6o 3c,6o 3c,6o 3c,7o 3c,7o 3c,7o
    1.110 4c,0o 4c,0o 4c,0o 4c,0o 4c,1o 4c,1o 4c,1o 4c,2o 4c,2o 4c,2o
    1.120 4c,2o 4c,3o 4c,3o 4c,3o 4c,4o 4c,4o 4c,4o 4c,4o 4c,5o 4c,5o
    1.130 4c,5o 4c,6o 4c,6o 4c,6o 4c,6o 4c,7o 4c,7o 4c,7o 5c,0o 5c,0o
    1.140 5c,0o 5c,0o 5c,1o 5c,1o 5c,1o 5c,2o 5c,2o 5c,2o 5c,2o 5c,3o
    1.150 5c,3o 5c,3o 5c,4o 5c,4o 5c,4o 5c,5o 5c,5o 5c,5o 5c,5o 5c, 6o

Quarts and Cups of Maple Syrup in 5 Gallons

  1. G. 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009
    – —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —–
    1.000 0q,0c 0q,0c 0q,0c 0q,1c 0q,1c 0q,1c 0q,1c 0q,2c 0q,2c 0q,2c
    1.010 0q,2c 0q,3c 0q,3c 0q,3c 0q,3c 1q,0c 1q,0c 1q,0c 1q,0c 1q,1c
    1.020 1q,1c 1q,1c 1q,1c 1q,2c 1q,2c 1q,2c 1q,2c 1q,3c 1q,3c 1q,3c
    1.030 1q,3c 2q,0c 2q,0c 2q,0c 2q,0c 2q,1c 2q,1c 2q,1c 2q,1c 2q,2c
    1.040 2q,2c 2q,2c 2q,2c 2q,3c 2q,3c 2q,3c 2q,3c 3q,0c 3q,0c 3q,0c
    1.050 3q,0c 3q,1c 3q,1c 3q,1c 3q,1c 3q,2c 3q,2c 3q,2c 3q,2c 3q,3c
    1.060 3q,3c 3q,3c 3q,3c 3q,3c 4q,0c 4q,0c 4q,0c 4q,0c 4q,1c 4q,1c
    1.070 4q,1c 4q,1c 4q,2c 4q,2c 4q,2c 4q,2c 4q,3c 4q,3c 4q,3c 4q,3c
    1.080 5q,0c 5q,0c 5q,0c 5q,0c 5q,1c 5q,1c 5q,1c 5q,1c 5q,2c 5q,2c
    1.090 5q,2c 5q,2c 5q,3c 5q,3c 5q,3c 5q,3c 6q,0c 6q,0c 6q,0c 6q,0c
    1.100 6q,1c 6q,1c 6q,1c 6q,1c 6q,2c 6q,2c 6q,2c 6q,2c 6q,3c 6q,3c
    1.110 6q,3c 6q,3c 7q,0c 7q,0c 7q,0c 7q,0c 7q,1c 7q,1c 7q,1c 7q,1c
    1.120 7q,2c 7q,2c 7q,2c 7q,2c 7q,2c 7q,3c 7q,3c 7q,3c 7q,3c 8q,0c
    1.130 8q,0c 8q,0c 8q,0c 8q,1c 8q,1c 8q,1c 8q,1c 8q,2c 8q,2c 8q,2c
    1.140 8q,2c 8q,3c 8q,3c 8q,3c 8q,3c 9q,0c 9q,0c 9q,0c 9q,0c 9q,1c
    1.150 9q,1c 9q,1c 9q,1c 9q,2c 9q,2c 9q,2c 9q,2c 9q,3c 9q,3c 9q,3c

Cups and Ounces of Maple Syrup in 1 Gallon

  1. G. 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009
    – —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —–
    1.000 0c,0o 0c,0o 0c,1o 0c,1o 0c,2o 0c,2o 0c,2o 0c,3o 0c,3o 0c,4o
    1.010 0c,4o 0c,4o 0c,5o 0c,5o 0c,6o 0c,6o 0c,6o 0c,7o 0c,7o 0c,7o
    1.020 1c,0o 1c,0o 1c,1o 1c,1o 1c,1o 1c,2o 1c,2o 1c,3o 1c,3o 1c,3o
    1.030 1c,4o 1c,4o 1c,5o 1c,5o 1c,5o 1c,6o 1c,6o 1c,7o 1c,7o 1c,7o
    1.040 2c,0o 2c,0o 2c,1o 2c,1o 2c,1o 2c,2o 2c,2o 2c,2o 2c,3o 2c,3o
    1.050 2c,4o 2c,4o 2c,4o 2c,5o 2c,5o 2c,6o 2c,6o 2c,6o 2c,7o 2c,7o
    1.060 3c,0o 3c,0o 3c,0o 3c,1o 3c,1o 3c,2o 3c,2o 3c,2o 3c,3o 3c,3o
    1.070 3c,4o 3c,4o 3c,4o 3c,5o 3c,5o 3c,6o 3c,6o 3c,6o 3c,7o 3c,7o
    1.080 3c,7o 4c,0o 4c,0o 4c,1o 4c,1o 4c,1o 4c,2o 4c,2o 4c,3o 4c,3o
    1.090 4c,3o 4c,4o 4c,4o 4c,5o 4c,5o 4c,5o 4c,6o 4c,6o 4c,7o 4c,7o
    1.100 4c,7o 5c,0o 5c,0o 5c,1o 5c,1o 5c,1o 5c,2o 5c,2o 5c,2o 5c,3o
    1.110 5c,3o 5c,4o 5c,4o 5c,4o 5c,5o 5c,5o 5c,6o 5c,6o 5c,6o 5c,7o
    1.120 5c,7o 6c,0o 6c,0o 6c,0o 6c,1o 6c,1o 6c,2o 6c,2o 6c,2o 6c,3o
    1.130 6c,3o 6c,4o 6c,4o 6c,4o 6c,5o 6c,5o 6c,6o 6c,6o 6c,6o 6c,7o
    1.140 6c,7o 6c,7o 7c,0o 7c,0o 7c,1o 7c,1o 7c,1o 7c,2o 7c,2o 7c,3o
    1.150 7c,3o 7c,3o 7c,4o 7c,4o 7c,5o 7c,5o 7c,5o 7c,6o 7c,6o 7c, 7o

Specific Gravity Potential Percent Alcohol by Volume


  1. G. 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009
    – —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —– —–
    1.000 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.4% 0.5% 0.6% 0.8% 0.9% 1.0% 1.2%
    1.010 1.3% 1.4% 1.6% 1.7% 1.8% 2.0% 2.1% 2.2% 2.4% 2.5%
    1.020 2.6% 2.7% 2.9% 3.0% 3.1% 3.3% 3.4% 3.5% 3.7% 3.8%
    1.030 3.9% 4.0% 4.2% 4.3% 4.4% 4.6% 4.7% 4.8% 5.0% 5.1%
    1.040 5.2% 5.4% 5.5% 5.6% 5.8% 5.9% 6.0% 6.1% 6.3% 6.4%
    1.050 6.5% 6.7% 6.8% 6.9% 7.1% 7.2% 7.3% 7.4% 7.6% 7.7%
    1.060 7.8% 8.0% 8.1% 8.2% 8.4% 8.5% 8.6% 8.8% 8.9% 9.0%
    1.070 9.2% 9.3% 9.4% 9.5% 9.7% 9.8% 9.9% 10.1% 10.2% 10.3%
    1.080 10.5% 10.6% 10.7% 10.8% 11.0% 11.1% 11.2% 11.4% 11.5% 11.6%
    1.090 11.8% 11.9% 12.0% 12.2% 12.3% 12.4% 12.6% 12.7% 12.8% 12.9%
    1.100 13.1% 13.2% 13.3% 13.5% 13.6% 13.7% 13.9% 14.0% 14.1% 14.2%
    1.110 14.4% 14.5% 14.6% 14.8% 14.9% 15.0% 15.2% 15.3% 15.4% 15.6%
    1.120 15.7% 15.8% 16.0% 16.1% 16.2% 16.3% 16.5% 16.6% 16.7% 16.9%
    1.130 17.0% 17.1% 17.3% 17.4% 17.5% 17.6% 17.8% 17.9% 18.0% 18.2%
    1.140 18.3% 18.4% 18.6% 18.7% 18.8% 19.0% 19.1% 19.2% 19.4% 19.5%
    1.150 19.6% 19.8% 19.9% 20.0% 20.1% 20.3% 20.4% 20.5% 20.7% 20.8%

Date: Thu, 4 Mar 1993 20:37 EST
From: STBLEZA@grove.iup.edu
Subject: More Mead Info (YUM!)

Greetings, all…

I have a few answers to questions asked, even though I would in no way consider
myself an expert (maybe intermediate). If you disagree with my techniques, then
a discussion on the MLD would be nice, but I prefer flames to come to me
directly.

On Tue, 2 Mar 93 12:43:09 EST, "Peter J. Burke" (FSAC-PMD)
<pburke@PICA.ARMY.MIL> writes:

>Greetings,

Salutations.

>I plan on making a batch of Mead in the near future
>and am looking for some good recipe type information.

The two recipes I use most are:
recipe #1 recipe #2 (this one is a mead/wine)
8 – 10 lbs. honey 8 – 10 lbs. honey
4 gal. water 4 gal. grape juice (a good wine type)
2 large oranges 4 large oranges
2 large limes
2 small (or 1 large) grapefruit
1 teaspoon fresh ginger 5 tea bags, Earl Gray tea
1 packet, Montclaret yeast 1 packet, Montclaret yeast

The process for both is about the same… Marry the honey into the water or
juice on your stove/heat source (You can do this with only a gal or so of the
water or juice, and add the rest later in the carboy). Let simmer for approx.
30 min (stirring occasionally to often, not letting the honey caramelize). Add
the fruit (cut into 8ths or 16ths) and spices (putting both into a CLEAN white
cotton sock makes it much easier), and let them sit for about 4-5 min, and
remove them. Transfer to carboy. If you only used part of the water/juice, add
the rest. Wait until the carboy is warm, but not hot, to the touch, and
introduce the yeast. Ferment in primary for about 11 days (until 'burst'
fermentation subsides), transfer to secondary or bottle, etc.
Both recipes pre-date my first brewing experience, and are 'borrowed' from
elsewhere… Both seem to be good starter recipes (they were the ones that I
started with), and seem to be fairly forgiving…

>Does it really take 6 months to fully ferment ?

To fully ferment, yes. It is, however, drinkable after two months (though it
tastes syrupy, 'green', and has many conflicting or dominating tastes, with none
of them 'marrying' well). After this time, it will still age in the bottle for
quite some time (similar to the way wine does), but be careful, since 'other
things' that got in along the way could cause it to age poorly. Note, I've yet
to experience a mead that remained in the bottle for more than two and 1/2
years.

>How long does active fermentation (in primary fermenter bucket)
>take prior to transfer into a carboy ?

I usually keep mine in the primary for about 11 days, which is the time of the
'burst' fermentation (the VERY QUICK fermentation that takes place when you
first add yeast to the must, and the yeast repoduces to fill avalible space).
After this time, it is still fermenting, just not as quickly. Many freinds (and
myself, for that matter) have left must in the primary for up to several months
with good to exceptional results. I fondly remember a mint mead I made two
years ago. I accidently left it in the primary for about six months, and then
[when I found it again], clarified it, and bottled it. It was divine.

>What is the ideal fermentation temperature ?

I prefer 58 degrees F myself, but opinions vary slightly. 55 d. F is about the
lowest you can go (yes, I tend to push it), and 75 seems to be the top (but some
people say 85, so…). For the most part, anywhere in between….

>Should I use bottled water or tap (mine is relatively hard) ?

If it's noticable hard, it's to hard to brew with. Brewing brings out the worst
in a water (esp. since hardness is usually metallic salts, and you remember all
the warning and cavets about metal containers). I have the same problem, and
have to 'import' decent water. Also, I tend not to like 'city water' either (I
have a well for drinking water, and the local township puts clorine in the water
to keep it 'pure' 8{ ).

>How long to boil the mix ? Boil at all ?

Hmmm… If you boil it, boil it for about 30 min. Also, boil before you add
fruits, spices, etc. Boiling allows impureties in the honey to rise to the
surface (and this is do-able at lower temperatures), where they can be skimmed
off the top(it doesn't really improve the mixture of honey and water or juice).
This process is called 'drossing', and the scum removed is called 'dross'.
It is of most utility if your honey still contains quantities of wax
from the bee hive that you wish to remove. It is also very useful if you are
worried about other 'buglets' getting into your brew, since bacteria doesn't
like extended heat much. However, this is USUALLY not a problem (though I did
once have to get rid of a fermenting vessel because of molds…).

>What addatives can I add for different flavors ?

All citrus fruit (the fruits themselves, not the juices), and most other fruits
(I really enjoy cherries and/or strawberries). Most herbs and spices (avoid the
'hot' ones, would you really want to drink jalepenio mead?). Most teas (I
haven't tried coffee yet, but it doesn't seem that the tastes will 'marry'
well…). Most cooking extracts (try to use the oil extracts, and not the
artifical extracts), with chocolate and/or vanilla being popular here (also, raw
Hersey's coco mix (the un-altered stuff you add to milk) produces good results).
Also, one could try hops, or anything else done to beer or wine to alter it's
flavour. The above are best added before fermentation, when the must is still
on your heat source. Also, as in the above recipes, keep the flavouring (other
than the extracts, etc.) in the must for just a few minutes while it simmers
(NOT BOILING). Also, after aging, etc, one can add flavours in the form of
extracts (when added here, they produce a slightly different taste than the
pre-fermentation extracts) or fortifications (such as distilled spirits and
other alcohols). Otherwise, mead does not mix well.

>
>Please forgive my lack of knowledge on the subject.
Don't worry, we were all new at this once, and this gives you the chance to
learn from experienced brewers (or, at least, egotistical brewers like me)
that we didn't get. This should get you started (or, at least, confused).

>Thank you.

Your welcome.


|"There are no choices between good and |The Dragon of |
|evil. All choices are between the | Summer Sun and |
|lesser of two evils, or the greater of | Winter Moon |
|two goods." |(AKA J. Hunter Heinlen) |
| -The Dragon of Shadow Walking and |(Bitnet:STBLEZA@IUP) |
| Night Stalking — a good friend RIP |(Internet:STBLEZA@GROVE.IUP.EDU) |




End of Mead Lover's Digest


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